More Information
ISBN: 9781783681037
Imprint: Langham Monographs
Format: Paperback
Dimensions (mm): 229 x 152 x 20
Publication Date: 31/05/2016
Pages: 382
Language: English

The Practice of Mission in Egypt

A Historical Study of the Integration between the American Mission and the Evangelical Church of Egypt, 1854–1970


Most mission studies have focused on the work of Western missionaries going to Majority World countries, with few examining indigenous churches and their relationship with Western mission agencies in practicing mission. This book is a historical study of the relationship between the Evangelical Church in Egypt and the American Presbyterian Mission. Wahba covers from when the missionary work began in 1854 until after the departure of the Mission from Egypt in 1967, and the transfer of all the work to the Egyptian Evangelical Church. Tracing the mission work of Egyptians within Egypt and neighbouring Sudan, Wahba analyses the impact that the relationship with the American Mission had and how it determined the indigenous Church’s practice and perspective of mission.

Author Bios

Tharwat Wahba

REV. DR. THARWAT WAHBA is an ordained pastor in the Evangelical (Presbyterian) Church of Egypt. Dr Wahba received his PhD from London School of Theology, UK and is now Professor of Mission and Evangelism and the Chair of the Mission Department in the Evangelical Theological Seminary in Cairo, Egypt. He worked as a staff member and campus director with Campus Crusade for Christ in Egypt for twelve years. Currently, he is Chairman of the Pastoral and Outreach Ministries Council of the Presbyterian Church of Egypt.


Dr Wahba’s analysis is rigorous, compelling, and accessible. It represents an important contribution to mission studies and the history of the worldwide church.

Peter G. Riddel
Vice Principal (Academic), Melbourne School of Theology, Australia
Professorial Research Associate, History, SOAS, University of London

With a special concern for evangelism, Professor Wahba examines the understanding and practice of mission exercised by the Evangelical Church of Egypt between 1854–1970. Interview transcripts add to the rich documentation made available in this welcome study of mission theology and practice.

Stanley H. Skreslet
F. S. Royster Professor of Christian Missions,
Union Presbyterian Seminary

This is a significant historical critique of both Western mission efforts to Egypt and pioneering Egyptian indigenous mission efforts in the modern era.

Keith Small
Honorary Fellow,
Bodleian Libraries, University of Oxford

Tharwat Wahba’s study, The Practice of Mission in Egypt, is a significant contribution to the history of nineteenth- and twentieth-century Christian missions in Egypt. It makes a substantial contribution to our understanding both of western missions in Egypt and Sudan and of the Evangelical Church of Egypt, and deserves to be more widely known.

Keith Ferdinando
Former lecturer in Missiology, London School of Theology
Director of Postgraduate Studies, Shalom University of Bunia

. . . an invaluable and illuminating perspective on the modern formation of Arabic-speaking Protestant communities in the Middle East.

Stephen J. Davis
Professor of Religious Studies,
Pierson College, Department of Religious Studies,
Yale University

This is a highly significant and valuable analysis of how the work of the American Presbyterian Mission in Egypt from 1854 developed into a genuinely independent and self-supporting national church.

Colin Chapman
Former lecturer in Islamic Studies, Near East School of Theology
Visiting lecturer, Arab Baptist Theological,Seminary, Beirut

Table of Contents

  1. Abstract
  2. Acknowledgements
  3. Abbreviations
  4. Introduction
  5. Chapter 1
    1. The Arrival of the American Mission in Egypt and the Establishment of the Evangelical Church
      1. 1.1 Introduction
      2. 1.2 Egypt in the Mid-Nineteenth Century
      3. 1.3 The Origins and Early Work of the American Mission in Egypt
        1. 1.3.1 Origins
        2. 1.3.2 Reasons for the Coming of the American Presbyterian Mission to Egypt
        3. 1.3.3 The Pioneer Missionaries of the American Mission in Egypt
        4. 1.3.4 The Methodologies Used by the Mission in Egypt
        5. 1.3.5 Challenges and Difficulties
        6. 1.3.6 The Role of the Egyptians in the Ministry of the American Mission
        7. 1.3.7 Mission after Fifty Years
      4. 1.4 The Mission Work in Egypt before the American Mission and the Establishment of New Denominations
        1. 1.4.1 The Church in Egypt before the Presbyterian Church: Major Denominations and Groups
        2. 1.4.2 Early Roman Catholic Missions
        3. 1.4.3 Western Missions and Establishing an Indigenous Church
      5. 1.5 The Establishment of the Egyptian Presbyterian Church
        1. 1.5.1 Reasons for Establishing an Evangelical Church
        2. 1.5.2 Important Steps in the Establishment and Organization of the Church
        3. 1.5.3 Different Opinions
        4. 1.5.4 The Relationship with the Government
        5. 1.5.5 Theological Training
        6. 1.5.6 The Evangelical Church’s Early Contributions to Egyptian Society
      6. 1.6 Conclusion
  6. Chapter 2
    1. The Relationship between the American Mission and the Evangelical Church in Egypt (1854–1958)
      1. 2.1 Introduction
      2. 2.2 The Relationship in the Early Period (1854–1904)
        1. 2.2.1 The Mission in Control of Everything until 1871
        2. 2.2.2 The Establishment of the Mission Association, 1871
        3. 2.2.3 The Development of the Relationship after the Establishment of the Mission Association and the Egyptian Presbytery
        4. 2.2.4 Training of Egyptian Leaders
        5. 2.2.5 Finances
      3. 2.3 The Relationship in the Second Period: Steps towards Independence (1905–1926)
        1. 2.3.1 Synod Assumes a Share in Self-Support, 1908
        2. 2.3.2 The Seminary
        3. 2.3.3 The Synod Declares Itself Self-Governing, 1926
      4. 2.4 The Relationship between 1926–1958
        1. 2.4.1 Financial Difficulties and Reductions
        2. 2.4.2 Relationships with the Government
        3. 2.4.3 Synod Representatives in Mission Meetings
        4. 2.4.4 The Mission Evaluates Its Policy
        5. 2.4.5 Board of Administration for Synod
        6. 2.4.6 Church Independence, 1958
      5. 2.5 Conclusion
  7. Chapter 3
    1. The Interaction between the American Mission and Evangelical Church in Muslim Evangelism
      1. 3.1 Introduction
      2. 3.2 The American Mission and Its Ministry to Muslims
        1. 3.2.1 The Mission’s Methods of Reaching Muslims
        2. 3.2.2 Experiences and Nature of Muslim Evangelism
      3. 3.3 The Evangelical Church and Muslim Evangelism
        1. 3.3.1 The Beginning of the Synod Work among Muslims
        2. 3.3.2 The Synod’s Methods in the Work among Muslims
        3. 3.3.3 The Role of American Mission with the Evangelical Church in Muslim Evangelism
        4. 3.3.4 The Synod Workers among Muslims
      4. 3.4 Reasons for the Lack in Converts’ Numbers
        1. 3.4.1 External Reasons
        2. 3.4.2 Internal Reasons in the Mission
        3. 3.4.3 Internal Reasons in the Church
      5. 3.5 Conclusion
  8. Chapter 4
    1. The Beginning of the American Mission and Evangelical Church Mission Work in Sudan
      1. 4.1 Introduction
      2. 4.2 Sudan at the End of the Nineteenth Century
      3. 4.3 The American Mission Explores the Sudanese Field
        1. 4.3.1 Early Efforts
        2. 4.3.2 Exploring Northern Sudan
        3. 4.3.3 Exploring Southern Sudan
      4. 4.4 The Beginning of the American Mission Work in Southern Sudan (1901–1912)
        1. 4.4.1 The Beginning
        2. 4.4.2 Methods of Ministry
      5. 4.5 The Beginning of the Work of the Evangelical Church in Sudan (1900–1909)
        1. 4.5.1 The Evangelical Church Takes Its First Step in Mission Work in Sudan
        2. 4.5.2 Gabra Hanna and the First Efforts in Khartoum
        3. 4.5.3 Gabra Hanna: A Missionary and Pastor
      6. 4.6 The Beginning of the American Mission Work in Northern Sudan (1903–1912)
      7. 4.7 The Evangelical Church in Egypt’s Response to the Work in Sudan
      8. 4.8 Conclusion
  9. Chapter 5
    1. The Development of the Ministry of the Egyptian Evangelical Church to Sudan (1909–1964)
      1. 5.1 Introduction
      2. 5.2 Abofarag – a Pastor with a Missionary Heart
      3. 5.3 Organizing the Work in Sudan
        1. 5.3.1 The Establishment of the Sudan Presbytery: Was It a Solution or a New Problem?
        2. 5.3.2 The Relationship between the Synod and the American Mission in Northern Sudan 1900–1956
        3. 5.3.3 The Role of the Committee for the Work in Sudan
      4. 5.4 The Characteristics of the Work in Sudan 1912–1956
        1. 5.4.1 Ministers and Ministry Expansions
        2. 5.4.2 Schools and Women’s Ministry
        3. 5.4.3 Political Situation
        4. 5.4.4 Work among Sudanese
        5. 5.4.5 Visitors from Egypt
      5. 5.5 The Role of Egyptian Laymen and Women in Mission Work in Sudan
        1. 5.5.1 Farouza Girgis
        2. 5.5.2 Garas Khella
        3. 5.5.3 Teachers and Workers with the American Mission
      6. 5.6 Mission-Oriented Pastors
        1. 5.6.1 Tobia Abdelmasih
        2. 5.6.2 Bolies Ref’at
        3. 5.6.3 William Mos’ad
      7. 5.7 The Characteristics of the Work in Sudan 1956–1964
        1. 5.7.1 Ministry to Southerners in Northern Sudan
        2. 5.7.2 The Separation of the Sudan Presbytery from the Synod of the Nile 1956–1964
      8. 5.8 Why Was It Difficult to Have Mission Work in Sudan?
      9. 5.9 Conclusion
  10. Chapter 6
    1. The First Egyptian Missionary to Southern Sudan and Kenya: Swailem Sidhom Hennein (1953–1970)
      1. 6.1 Introduction
      2. 6.2 The Church Preparation
      3. 6.3 The Missionary Preparation
      4. 6.4 First Year in Southern Sudan
      5. 6.5 The Role of the American Mission with the Egyptian Mission in Southern Sudan
      6. 6.6 Swailem’s Ministry in Attar
        1. 6.6.1 Evangelism and Baptism
        2. 6.6.2 Church Planting and Organization
        3. 6.6.3 Schools
        4. 6.6.4 Social Work
      7. 6.7 The Significance of Swailem’s Appointment and Work
        1. 6.7.1 The Influence of Mission Work in Sudan on the Evangelical Church in Egypt
        2. 6.7.2 The Establishment of the Egyptian Mission Council
      8. 6.8 The End of Swailem’s Mission to Sudan
      9. 6.9 Swailem’s Mission in Kenya
      10. 6.10 The End of an Era
      11. 6.11 Conclusion
  11. Chapter 7
    1. The Development of the Relationship between the American Mission and the Egyptian Evangelical Church 1958–1970
      1. 7.1 Introduction
      2. 7.2 The Influence of Political Developments upon the Relationship between the Evangelical Church and the
      3. American Mission
      4. 7.3 Changes in Theology and Relationships
        1. 7.3.1 The Mohonk Consultation
        2. 7.3.2 The Asmara Conference
        3. 7.3.3 An Advisory Study
        4. 7.3.4 Egyptian Response to Theological Changes
      5. 7.4 The Integration between the Synod and the Mission
        1. 7.4.1 Steps towards Integration
        2. 7.4.2 The Dissolution of the American Mission in 1966
        3. 7.4.3 The American Mission Departure in 1967
      6. 7.5 The Characteristics of the Practice of Mission in the Evangelical Church of Egypt 1958–1970
        1. 7.5.1 Administration and Finances
        2. 7.5.2 Ministry Approaches and Opportunities
        3. 7.5.3 Understanding and Practice of Evangelism
        4. 7.5.4 Mission Opportunities
      7. 7.6 Conclusion
  12. Chapter 8
    1. Conclusions and Contributions
      1. 8.1 Conclusions
        1. 8.1.1 Politics
        2. 8.1.2 The Relationship between the Church and the Mission
        3. 8.1.3 The American Mission and the Synod Interactions in Mission and Evangelism
        4. 8.1.4 Egyptian Understanding and Practice of Mission and Evangelism
      2. 8.2 Contributions
        1. 8.2.1 Egyptian View of the Relationship between the American Mission and the Egyptian Church
        2. 8.2.2 Egyptian Contribution to Mission Work
        3. 8.2.3 The Influence of the American Church’s Changing Mission Theology as Experienced in Egypt
  13. Appendix A
    1. Constitution of the Egyptian Association of the Missionaries of the United Presbyterian Church of North America
  14. Appendix B
    1. Constitution and By-laws of the American Mission in Egypt, UAR of the United Presbyterian Church in the USA, 1966
  15. Appendix C
    1. An Interview with Swailem Sedhom Hennein, Cairo, 5 March 2004
  16. Appendix D
    1. Interview with Bakheet Matta, Alexandria, 3 March 2004
  17. Bibliography
    1. I. Primary Sources
    2. II. Secondary Source

Related Books

Related by Classification