More Information
ISBN: 9781783682812
Imprint: Langham Monographs
Format: Paperback
Dimensions (mm): 229 x 152 x 29
Publication Date: 30/06/2017
Pages: 556
Language: English

A Study of the Emergence and Early Development of Selected Protestant Chinese Churches in the Philippines


Dr Jean Uayan comprehensively weaves the story of six Protestant Chinese churches in the Philippines into the local history of their individual settings in this important study. Uncovering new insight and historical information from extensive primary and secondary sources, Uayan presents a rich and previously unacknowledged heritage and support from four American mission organisations during the US occupation from 1898–1946. The seeds sown amongst Chinese communities across the Philippines resulted in indigenous churches that took differing journeys to full independence and now are also bearing fruit in missionary activity in South Fujian, China. This book is an important contribution towards a global church history acknowledging the work of the Holy Spirit establishing and building up the church of Jesus Christ among the nations.

Author Bios

Jean Uy Uayan

JEAN UY UAYAN is Professor in Church History at the Biblical Seminary of the Philippines, Valenzuela City and has been with the institution for nearly forty years, as well as the Head of the Library and English editor of the seminary newsletter. She gained her PhD in Church History from Asia Graduate School of Theology, Quezon City, Philippines. Her academic career has seen her articles feature in various publications and she has written and edited books in English and Chinese. Uayan’s extensive academic studies include Middle Eastern Studies at Jerusalem University College.


Jean Uayan’s pioneering book sheds light on the spread of Reformation Christianity among Chinese Buddhists in the Catholic Philippines, deepening our understanding of the emergence of what Philip Jenkins has dubbed “the next Christendom.” It has my highest recommendation.

George W. Harper, PhD
Program Director, Theological Studies and Church History,
Asia Graduate School of Theology

Dr Jean Uayan’s A Study of the Emergence and Early Development of Selected Protestant Chinese Churches in the Philippines is another important addition to historiography of religion of the Chinese-Filipino community in the Philippines. How the six churches emerged in the predominantly Catholic Philippines, how the membership and leadership were formed and how they related to the Christian missions of early years, and how the churches resolved issues and challenges, enlighten the readers and fill a serious gap in the body of literature on the study of the Chinese Filipinos.

Teresita Ang See
Founding President, Kaisa Para Sa Kaunlaran Inc.
Executive Trustee, Kaisa Heritage Foundation

In a recent gathering of theological educators in Asia, a church history professor lamented, “There is a dearth of materials on Asian Church History, we need local textbooks, please write about the history of Christianity in your country.” This book meets such a need!

Theresa Roco Lua, PhD
General Secretary, Asia Theological Association

This is a great and significant work on the history of Chinese churches in the Philippines. Aside from helping the existing Chinese churches in the Philippines to go back to see God’s graciousness in establishing his church, the book can be a tool for critical researchers, church historians, and church pastors to study and plan on how to establish new churches in Asia and beyond.

Joseph Shao, PhD
General Secretary, Asia Theological Association (2007–2016)
President, Biblical Seminary of the Philippines
Board member, Chinese Congress on World Evangelism International

Historians have previously shown some interest in Protestant church history in the Philippines, but recently the topic has become more developed. Jean Uayan’s study is one of very few in this area; this is specifically so of Chinese churches. Numerous pages of early photographs and lists, as well as the author’s final reflections, round out the narrative. This is a well-documented work.

Anne C. Kwantes, PhD
Retired missionary of Christian Reformed World Missions
Former professor of Church and Mission History in Asia,
Asian Theological Seminary

Table of Contents

  1. Abstract
  2. Acknowledgments
  3. List of Tables
  4. Abbreviations
  5. Explanatory Notes
  6. Chapter 1
    1. Introduction
      1. A. Global Perspective
      2. B. Background of the Problem: Local Challenges
      3. C. Statement of the Problem
      4. D. Purpose of the Study
      5. E. Methodological Framework
      6. F. Scope and Delimitations
      7. G. Definition of Terms
      8. H. Organization
  7. Chapter 2
    1. Review of Literature and Related Studies
      1. A. Historical, Social and Religious Background
      2. B. History of Protestantism in China
      3. C. History of Protestantism in the Philippines
      4. D. Emergence of the Philippine Protestant Chinese Churches
  8. Chapter 3
    1. Presentation and Evaluation of Findings
      1. A. The Historical, Social, and Religious Setting
        1. 1. China and the Philippines
          1. a) Pre-Hispanic Period
          2. b) Spanish Regime
        2. 2. Chinese Migration to the Philippines
          1. a) Phenomenon of Migration
          2. b) Reasons for Migration
          3. c) Waves of Migration
          4. d) Origins and Concentration of Immigrants
          5. e) Patterns of Migration
        3. 3. Growth of the Chinese Population in the Philippines
        4. 4. History of the Chinese in Manila
          1. a) Early Settlements
          2. b) Alcaiceria and Parian
          3. c) Binondo and Santa Cruz
          4. d) The Past and the Present
          5. e) Synopsis
        5. 5. The China Connection
          1. a) Christianity in China (7th–18th Centuries)
          2. b) Protestantism in South Fujian (1842–1898)
          3. c) Protestantism in Xiamen and Its Vicinity
          4. d) Protestantism in China (Republican Period, 1911–1949)
      2. B. The Six Philippine Protestant Chinese Churches
        1. 1. Protestant Missionary Attempt among the Philippine Chinese
          1. a) The Founding of the Presbyterian Mission
          2. b) Initial Concern for the Chinese
          3. c) Gathering the Protestant Chinese
          4. d) Short-lived Ministry
          5. e) Place of Worship
          6. f ) Time of Worship
        2. 2. The “Chinese Presbyterian Church in Iloilo”
          1. a) History of Iloilo
          2. b) The Chinese Presbyterian Congregation
          3. c) Other Chinese Churches in Iloilo
        3. 3. St. Stephen’s Chinese Mission
          1. a) Deliberation and Indecision
          2. b) Chaplains and the Brotherhood of St. Andrew
          3. c) Attempts and Setback in Chinese Work
          4. d) Contribution of Brent and Studley
          5. e) The Emergence of St. Stephen’s Chinese Mission
          6. f ) Developments after Brent’s Departure
          7. g) Summary
        4. 4. Cebu Gospel Church
          1. a) Presbyterian Work in Cebu
          2. b) Progress in Cebu Mission
          3. c) The Chinese in Cebu City
          4. d) Presbyterian Work Among the Chinese
          5. e) Summary
        5. 5. The Chinese United Evangelical Church
          1. a) Chinese and English Names
          2. b) Eight Reasons for Establishing CUEC
          3. c) Other Reasons for Separating
          4. d) Context of the “Declaration”
          5. e) The Presbyterian Mission and CUEC
          6. f) The Church Organized
          7. g) Effects of Revival in China
          8. h) Summary
        6. 6. Davao Chinese Gospel Church
          1. a) Beginning of CMA
          2. b) CMA in the Philippines
          3. c) CMA in Davao
          4. d) Emergence of DCGC
          5. e) DCGC and CMA
          6. f) The First Chinese Pastor
        7. 7. Dagupan Chinese Baptist Church
          1. a) SBC Work in China
          2. b) SBC Work in the Philippines
          3. c) Emergence of DCBC
          4. d) The Church Organized
          5. e) Devolution of DCBC
  9. Chapter 4
    1. Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
      1. A. Introduction
      2. B. Emergence of the Six Chinese Churches
        1. 1. “Chinese Presbyterian Church in Iloilo”
        2. 2. St. Stephen’s Chinese Mission
        3. 3. Cebu Gospel Church
        4. 4. Chinese United Evangelical Church
        5. 5. Davao Chinese Gospel Church
        6. 6. Dagupan Chinese Baptist Church
      3. C. Discerning the Patterns of Emergence
        1. 1. Original Intention
        2. 2. Mission-Established or Mission-Assisted?
        3. 3. Common Methodology
        4. 4. From Contacts to Core Members
        5. 5. Long Terms of Service
        6. 6. Lack of Language Training
        7. 7. Chinese Leadership
        8. 8. Rapid Devolution
      4. D. Unique Features
        1. 1. Growth of an Indigenous Church
        2. 2. DCGC and Mission Work
        3. 3. SBC and Leadership Training
      5. E. Observations and Recommendations
        1. 1. Inter-faith and Inter-cultural Studies
        2. 2. Ecclesiological Investigations
        3. 3. Missiological Concerns
        4. 4. Theological Reflection
      6. F. Conclusion
  10. Appendix A
    1. Location of Six Philippine Protestant Chinese Churches
  11. Appendix B
    1. List and Profiles of Interviewees
  12. Appendix C
    1. Significant Events Affecting Chinese Immigration During the Spanish Regime (1561–1899)
  13. Appendix D
    1. Source Areas of Hokkien Migration to the Philippines
  14. Appendix E
    1. The Origin of the Chinese Population of Manila and the Philippines 1822 and 1890s
  15. Appendix F
    1. Chinese in Philippine Cities and Towns by Xian of Origin
  16. Appendix G
    1. Political Divisions of Fujian Province circa 1912
  17. Appendix H
    1. Migration from Xiamen, circa 1912
  18. Appendix I
    1. Emigration Statistics for 1904, 1905, 1906, 1909
  19. Appendix J
    1. Number of Chinese in Manila and Provinces, 1899–1909
  20. Appendix K
    1. Chinese Population in the Philippines, Manila and More Heavily Populated Provinces, 1903, 1918, 1939
  21. Appendix L
    1. Manila in the Late Eighteenth Century
  22. Appendix M
    1. Map of the City of Manila, Philippine Islands 1913
  23. Appendix N
    1. Map of Manila (2006)
  24. Appendix O
    1. Two Pioneer Missionaries in Xiamen
  25. Appendix P
    1. Mission Work in China before and after 1842
  26. Appendix Q
    1. Map of Fujian (2003)
  27. Appendix R
    1. Initial Phase of Mission Work in Fujian Province
  28. Appendix S
    1. International Settlement in Gulangyu
  29. Appendix T
    1. William Burns, Iap Han Chiong and Carstairs Douglas
  30. Appendix U
    1. Xiamen Churches Past and Present
  31. Appendix V
    1. Protestant Expansion, 1842–1905
  32. Appendix W
    1. Map of Iloilo and Guimaras, circa 1899
  33. Appendix X
    1. Archival Photographs of Iloilo Mission
  34. Appendix Y
    1. Archival Photographs of St. Stephen’s Chinese Mission
  35. Appendix Z
    1. Growth of the Philippine Methodist Church, 1904–1907
  36. Appendix AA
    1. Progress of St. Stephen’s Chinese Mission, 1923–1929
  37. Appendix BB
    1. The United Church of Christ in the Philippines and the Protestant Chinese Churches
  38. Appendix CC
    1. Presbyterian Missionaries in the Philippines, circa 1925
  39. Appendix DD
    1. Archival Photographs of Cebu Gospel Church
  40. Appendix EE
    1. “Declaration of the Founding of the Chinese Church of Christ Sojourning in the Philippines”
  41. Appendix FF
    1. Archival Photographs of Chinese United Evangelical Church
  42. Appendix GG
    1. Founding Members of The Chinese United Evangelical Church
  43. Appendix HH
    1. Archival Photographs of Davao Chinese Gospel Church
  44. Appendix II
    1. Archival Photos of Dagupan Chinese Baptist Church
  45. Appendix JJ
    1. Fern Harrington’s Report

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