More Information
ISBN: 9781783685899
Imprint: Langham Academic
Format: Paperback
Dimensions (mm): 229 x 152 x 19
Publication Date: 30/04/2019
Pages: 364
Series: Studies in Christian History
Language: English

The Philippine Council of Evangelical Churches

Its Background, Context, and Formation among Post-World War II Churches


In this historical account, Dr Raymundo Go presents the arrival and growth of evangelicalism in the Philippines from 1898 to 2000, looking in particular at the formation of the Philippine Council of Evangelical Churches (PCEC) and the motivating factors of the founding members. Weaving together a narrative almost forgotten in the Philippines, Dr Go also brings unique insights on the impact that North American events and theological debates had on the nascent Philippine church. Through detailed explanation of the interaction and influence of the modernist/liberal, fundamental, and evangelical movements in shaping Philippine Christian history, this study addresses the historical reason for a lack of unity in the Philippine church.

Dr Go applies Paul Hiebert’s theory of bounded and centred sets to the divisions between key organizations and churches in the Philippines to analyze and understand the behaviours of the influential groups involved in shaping Protestantism in the Philippines today. This important work is not only needed to draw attention to the history of the church in the Philippines, but it is vital in showing the need to learn from a divided past when considering the potential for future reconciliation and unity in the body of Christ.

Author Bios

Raymundo Go

RAYMUNDO GO earned his PhD from Ateneo de Manila University, Philippines. He has been a missionary with Philippine Campus Crusade for Christ for thirty years, and has taught theology at the International Graduate School of Leadership, Quezon City, Philippines, for the last seventeen years. Dr Go recently moved to serve as a lecturer in the Theology Department at the East Asia School of Theology, Singapore. He and his wife, Lut, are blessed with two children, Sara and Nathan.


Raymundo Go’s historical exposition of the formation and development of the Philippine Council of Evangelical Churches is logically arranged, thorough, detailed, and well documented.

Rodrigo D. Tano, PhD
President of Alliance Graduate School

This book will serve as a tremendous source of encouragement for present and future PCEC leaders to carry the torch of national and global evangelization.

Bishop Noel Pantoja
National Director, PCEC
Member, Executive Council, Asia Evangelical Alliance
Member, International Council, World Evangelical Alliance

This is a book that must not be found only in the libraries of bible institutions but more so in the archives of history. Thank you so much for writing our meta-story. I highly recommend it as a must-read for church leaders.

Agustin B. Vencer, Jr, PhD
Former Executive Secretary, PCEC
Former International Director, World Evangelical Fellowship

Table of Contents

  1. List of Abbreviations
  2. Foreword
  3. Chapter 1
    1. General Introduction
      1. Background of the Study
      2. Statement of the Problem
      3. Outline of the Study
      4. Scope and Limitations
        1. Scope
        2. Limitations
      5. Significance of the Problem
      6. Methodology
      7. Review of Related Literature
      8. Conclusion
  4. Chapter 2
    1. The Modernist/Liberal-Fundamentalist Controversy and the Fundamentalist/Evangelical Controversy in North America (1800–1960)
      1. The “Awakenings” and Evangelicalism (1700s–1800s)
      2. Personal Repentance
        1. Growth in Numbers
        2. Itinerant Evangelists
        3. Growth in Missions
      3. Social Reformations
        1. The Establishment of Educational Institutions
        2. The Abolitionist Movement
        3. Establishment of Social Institutions
      4. Modernist-Fundamentalist Controversy (1800s–1920s)
        1. The Rise of the Modernist Movement (Mid-1800s)
      5. The Rise of the Fundamentalist Movement (Late 1800s)
      6. The Gap Widens Between the Factions (1900–1920)
        1. The Federal Council of Churches (1908)
        2. World Missionary Conference in Edinburgh (1910)
        3. Fundamentalist Books and Publications (1910–1915)
      7. Liberalism Gains Popularity (1920s–1940s)
        1. The Growing Secularism of America
        2. Public Support for the Liberal Cause
        3. Christian Institutions Become Liberal
      8. Reconsolidation of Fundamentalism (1930–1940)
        1. The Establishment of Reformed Institutions
        2. The Rise of Pentecostalism (1900–1930s)
        3. The Surge in Proclamation Ministry
      9. The Rise of Evangelicalism (1940s–1950s)
        1. Key Characteristics of the Evangelicals
      10. Fundamentalist-Evangelical Controversy (1950s–1980s)
      11. Conclusion
  5. Chapter 3
    1. Protestantism in the Philippines: From Inception to the Post-World War II Era (1890s–1950s)
      1. The Arrival of Protestantism in the Islands (1900s)
        1. Missionary Boards Conference in New York (1898)
        2. The Evangelical Union (1901)
        3. Early Proclamation and Reform Efforts
      2. Mergers and Schisms Among Pre-War Protestant Churches (1910–1920s)
        1. The IEMELIF (1909)
        2. The Evangelical Church of the Philippines (Independent Presbyterian) (1914)
        3. The Union Church of Manila (1914)
        4. The Evangelical Christian Church of the Philippine Islands (1915)
        5. The United Church of Manila (1924)
        6. The United Evangelical Church in the Philippines Islands (1929)
        7. The National Christian Council (1929)
        8. The UNIDA (1932)
        9. The Philippine Methodist Church (1933)
        10. The Philippine Federation of Evangelical Churches (1938)
      3. Fundamentalism in the Philippines
        1. Schisms Caused by Modernist-Fundamentalist Controversy (1920s)
        2. The Arrival of Fundamentalist/Conservative Churches Baptist Separation Issues in Iloilo (1930s)
        3. Fundamental Baptist Churches Growth and Expansion (late 1930s to 1940s)
      4. Wartime Union and Activities (1942–1946)
        1. Religious Section of the Japanese Imperial Army
        2. Forced Agreement at the Manila Hotel
        3. Federation of Evangelical Churches in the Philippines and the Evangelical Church of the Philippines
        4. Wartime Fundamentalist Efforts
      5. Immediate Post-War Period (1946–1948)
        1. Mergers and Unions among Mainline Protestant Churches
        2. Mergers and Arrival among Fundamentalist/Conservative Churches
      6. Conclusion
  6. Chapter 4
    1. The Formation of the Philippine Council of Evangelical Churches (1960s)
      1. Transitions and Changes (1950s)
        1. The Arrival of New Fundamentalist/Evangelical Churches in the Post-War Period
        2. Developments within the Pre-War Mainline Protestant Churches
        3. Differences Between the Pre-War Mainline Protestants and the Fundamentalist/Evangelical Churches
        4. Summary
      2. The Formation of PCEC (1960s)
        1. The Philippine Council of Fundamental Churches (1964)
        2. Philippine Council of Fundamental-Evangelical Churches (1964)
        3. The Philippine Council of Evangelical Churches (1969)
        4. PCEC’s Directions and Emphasis (Late 1970s–1990s)
      3. Conclusion
  7. Chapter 5
    1. Analysis and Synthesis of the Formation and Developments within PCEC Using Hiebert’s Bounded versus Centered Set Categories
      1. Bounded versus Centered Set Unions
      2. Applying Hiebert’s Categorization to the Post-War Councils in the Philippines
        1. Two Councils in Contrast
        2. Summary
        1. PCEC in the Lens of Hiebert’s Model
        2. PCEC’s Early Years – Bounded Set (1964–1966)
        3. PCEC’s Transitional Period (1966–1980s)
        4. PCEC as a Centered Set Union (1978–1990s)
        5. PCEC as a Centrist Organization
        6. Summary
      3. Conclusion
  8. Chapter 6
    1. Recommendations and Conclusion
      1. Introduction
      2. A Summary of Findings
      3. Recommendations
      4. Recommendations for Further Study
        1. The Adjustments Taken by the Roman Catholic Church
        2. Historical Developments within the Mainline Protestant Churches
        3. The Present Condition of the Fundamentalist Churches
        4. The Current Trends and Developments within the Mega-Churches
        5. Dialogue between the Evangelicals and the Roman Catholic Churches
        6. The Possibility of a Future Unification among the Religious Leaders of the Country
        7. The Future for PCEC and Its Constituents
      5. Conclusion
  9. Appendix A
    1. PCEC Timeline
  10. Appendix B
    1. PCEC Constitution and By-Laws
  11. Appendix C
    1. Aragon’s List of Attendees Who Initiated the Formation of PCEC
  12. Appendix D
    1. Interview with Fred Magbanua, Jr
  13. Appendix E
    1. Interview with Mariano Leones
  14. Appendix F
    1. Interview with Eliseo Capile
  15. Appendix G
    1. Interview with Pio Tica
  16. Appendix H
    1. Interview with Ebenezer Nacita
  17. Appendix I
    1. Correspondence with Faustino Ruivivar, Jr (6 June 2010)
  18. Appendix J
    1. Correspondence with Faustino Ruivivar, Jr (7 June 2010)
  19. Appendix K
    1. Correspondence with Faustino Ruivivar, Jr (8 June 2010)
  20. Appendix L
    1. Correspondence with Faustino Ruivivar, Jr (9 June 2010)
  21. Appendix M
    1. Correspondence with Faustino Ruivivar, Jr (12 June 2010)
  22. Appendix N
    1. Correspondence with Faustino Ruivivar, Jr (19 June 2010)
  23. Appendix O
    1. Correspondence with Faustino Ruivivar, Jr (16 August 2010)
  24. Appendix P
    1. Correspondence with Felipe Ferrez, Jr (11 June 2013)
  25. Appendix Q
    1. Interview with Agustin B. Vencer
  26. Glossary
  27. Selected Bibliography