More Information
ISBN: 9781839736056
Imprint: Langham Academic
Format: Paperback
Dimensions (mm): 229 x 152 x 17
Publication Date: 31/05/2023
Pages: 324
Series: Studies in Old Testament
Language: English

Post-mortem Divine Retribution

A Study in the Hebrew Bible and Select Second Temple Jewish Literature Compared with Aspects of Divine Retribution in Deuteronomy


While a Christian understanding of divine judgement tends to focus on the afterlife, the Hebrew Bible is far more concerned with divine retribution as something experienced in this life. Yet if the same God enacts both, should there not be significant continuity between biblical accounts of divine retribution, whether experienced in this world or the hereafter?

In this study, Dr. Angukali Rotokha provides an overview of Old Testament and Second Temple sources that express conceptions of post-mortem judgement. Alongside these passages, she examines the perspective on judgement presented in Deuteronomy, with its orientation towards divine retribution as experienced on this side of death. She explores Deuteronomy’s varying emphases on the impersonal, anthropocentric, theocentric, and limited aspects of divine retribution, as well as the relevance of these conceptions to the descriptions of post-mortem judgement found in Isaiah, Daniel, 1 Enoch, and 2 Maccabees. In clarifying points of continuity and discontinuity between earthly and post-mortem divine retribution, she provides a foundation for deeper insight into the Judeo-Christian understanding of both God’s judgement and God’s grace.

Author Bios

Angukali Rotokha

ANGUKALI ROTOKHA has a PhD in Old Testament from the South Asia Institute of Advanced Christian Studies, Bangalore, India. She has taught at Oriental Theological Seminary, Nagaland, India and South Asia Institute of Advanced Christian Studies, Bangalore. She is a member of the executive committee of her local church in Bangalore, where she also serves with the teaching/preaching ministry, and she has been involved in Christian ministry for nearly twenty years.


Dr. Rotokha’s fascinating study of post-mortem retribution in the Old Testament and Second Temple Jewish writings is cogent, coherent, and compelling. She presents a balanced and thorough case on an under-researched topic that provides important background for the New Testament. This is a fine example of careful research, deserving of careful reading.

Paul Barker, PhD
Assistant Bishop, Anglican Diocese of Melbourne
Visiting Lecturer in Old Testament,
Myanmar Evangelical Graduate School of Theology

Angukali Rotokha’s excellent study, carefully examining and comparing the multidimensional aspects of the concept of divine retribution in Deuteronomy with four post-mortem texts, addresses a significant lacuna in biblical scholarship, and thereby makes an important contribution to the field. This book is a welcome and significant addition to the research and conversation on this important topic.

Rebecca G. S. Idestrom, PhD
Professor of Old Testament,
Tyndale University, Toronto, Canada

Table of Contents

  1. Acknowledgments
  2. Abstract
  3. Abbreviations
  4. Chapter 1
  5. Chapter 2
    The Aspects of Divine Retribution in the Book of Deuteronomy
  6. Chapter 3
    Post-mortem Divine Retribution in Isaiah 26:19
  7. Chapter 4
    Post-mortem Divine Retribution in Daniel 12:1–3
  8. Chapter 5
    Post-mortem Divine Retribution in the Book of Watchers 22
  9. Chapter 6
    Post-mortem Divine Retribution in 2 Maccabees 7
  10. Chapter 7
  11. Appendix
    Annotated Bibliography for the Themes of Divine Retribution and Afterlife in the Hebrew Bible and Second Temple Period Jewish Literature
  12. Bibliography
  13. Subject Index
  14. Scripture Index